Today, an outcome-based education (OBE) model is strongly advocated for the design and delivery of 21st century health professional curriculum: the professional competencies required for future practice are defined in terms of the intended learning outcomes (i.e. the knowledge, skills, attitudes) formulated from and aligned to the end-product capability (i.e. the desired attributes of the end-product) identified. Learners need to provide evidence of having acquired the desired professional competencies by passing examinations which use assessment tools (e.g. MEQs, OSCEs) designed for such a purpose.
However, in the clinical setting (i.e. in the work environment), it is recommended that learners need to show evidence that they have acquired desired professional competencies by independently performing a given set of professional tasks, after a period of learning under supervision. Such ‘professional tasks’ performed by the learner independently are referred to as the ‘Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs). Workplace-based assessments tools (e.g. Mini-CEX, DOPS) should be used for assessing EPAs.